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Biology: A Global Approach plus MasteringBiology with Pearson eText, Global Edition

Campbell & Urry & Cain & Wasse

For courses in general biology.

This package includes MasteringBiology™.



The world’s most successful majors biology text and media program are better than ever!



The 11th Edition of the best-selling Biology: A Global Approach, Global Edition, sets students on the path to success in biology through its clear and engaging narrative, superior skills instruction, innovative use of art and photos, and fully integrated media resources to enhance teaching and learning.



To engage learners in developing a deeper understanding of biology, the 11th Edition challenges them to apply their knowledge and skills to a variety of new hands-on activities and exercises in the text and online. Content updates throughout the text reflect rapidly evolving research, and new learning tools include Problem-Solving Exercises, Visualizing Figures, Visual Skills Questions, and more.



This package includes MasteringBiology, an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to personalize learning and improve results. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts.



MasteringBiology should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Please be sure you have the correct ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.
Features
This title is a Pearson Global Edition. The Editorial team at Pearson has worked closely with educators around the world to include content, which is especially relevant to students outside the United States.



About the book



Key Concepts: Each chapter in the 11th Edition is organized around a manageable framework of three to six Key Concepts that provide the context for supporting details, helping students distinguish the forest from the trees.

· The Key Concepts at the beginning of the chapter orient students to the main ideas of the chapter.

· Numbered Concept Heads keep students focused on the main ideas as they move through the chapter and make it easy for instructors to assign selected sections.

· Concept Check Questions at the end of each section provide a hierarchical framework for self-assessment.

· The Summary of Key Concepts, which includes summary diagrams and questions, refocuses students on the main points.



NEW! Content Updates: Carefully selected content updates throughout the text reflect rapidly evolving research in the fields of:

· Genomics

· Gene editing technology (CRISPR)

· Microbiomes

· Impacts of climate change across the biological hierarchy

· Significant revisions have been made to Unit 8, The Ecology of Life, including a deeper integration of evolutionary principles.



Course Themes:

· Five fundamental themes that mirror the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education report and run through all areas of biology--Evolution, Organization, Information, Energy and Matter, and Interactions--are introduced in Chapter 1 and recur throughout the text. A Write about a Theme question in every Chapter Review reinforces how the chapter content relates to one of these common “big ideas” of biology.

· Evolution is the core theme of this text, introduced in Chapter 1. Every chapter includes at least one section that explicitly focuses on evolutionary aspects of the content, highlighted by an Evolution banner. (Since the chapters in Unit 4, Evolution, and Unit 5, The Diversity of Life, are all about evolution, these chapters do not have Evolution banners.) Every Chapter Review includes an Evolution Connection Question.

· The impact of genomics and gene editing across biology is explored throughout the 11th Edition. Examples show students how our ability to sequence DNA and proteins rapidly and inexpensively is transforming every subfield of biology, from cell biology to physiology to ecology.

o The basic steps of gene expression are shown in Chapter 1, providing students with an understanding of how genes determine the characteristics of an organism from the beginning of their study of biology.

o Chapter 5 concludes with the concept, “Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications,” which includes a Make Connections Figure, “Contributions of Genomics and Proteomics to Biology.”

o Examples show how biology is being revolutionized by DNA and protein sequence analysis, such as human origins research in Chapter 34, microbiome coverage in Chapter 42, and virus history identification in Chapter 47.

o CRISPR gene editing is covered in Chapters 19, 26, and 27.



Skill Development and Practice: The 11th Edition engages students by challenging them to apply their knowledge and skills to a variety of hands-on activities and exercises in the text and online.

· NEW! Problem-Solving Exercises guide students in applying scientific skills and interpreting real data in the context of solving a real-world problem. A version of each Problem-Solving Exercise can also be assigned in MasteringBiology™.

· NEW! Visualizing Figures and Visual Skills Questions are designed to improve students’ ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· Interpret the Data questions throughout the text ask students to analyze quantitative information presented in a graph or table. These questions can be assigned in MasteringBiology.

· Scientific Skills Exercises in every chapter of the text use real data to build key skills needed for biology, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills. Each Scientific Skills Exercise is also available as an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· Inquiry Figures highlight how researchers designed an experiment, interpreted their results, and drew conclusions. Each Inquiry Figure concludes with a What If? Question that asks students to consider an alternative scenario, an Interpret the Data Question that asks students to analyze the data presented, or a Visual Skills Question that asks students to interpret a diagram.

· Research Method Figures illustrate important techniques in biology

· Scientific Inquiry Questions in the end-of-chapter material ask students to practice scientific thinking by developing hypotheses, designing experiments, and analyzing real research data.

· Interviews with renowned researchers inspire students and show them the human side of science.



Make Connections: The 11th Edition helps students make connections visually across biology topics.

· Eleven Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships.

· NEW! Make Connections Figures include Figure 37.10, “Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains,” and Figure 56.29, “Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization.” Make Connections Figure 18.27 on breast cancer has been expanded to illustrate the role of cell signaling in one type of breast cancer and its treatment.

· Make Connections Questions ask students to relate content in a chapter to material presented earlier in the course to help them see how the different areas of biology are connected, from molecules to organisms to ecosystems.

· Make Connections Tutorials in MasteringBiology connect content from two different chapters using art from the book. Make Connections Tutorials are automatically graded and include answer-specific feedback for students.



Active Learning and Assessment: Biology: A Global Approach, 11th Edition, Global Edition provides students with multiple opportunities to deepen their understanding of biology:



In the text:

· NEW! Problem-Solving Exercises using real data guide students in applying scientific skills and interpreting real data in the context of solving a real-world problem. A version of each Problem-Solving Exercise can also be assigned in MasteringBiology.

· NEW! Visualizing Figures and Visual Skills Questions are designed to improve students' ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· Scientific Skills Exercises in every chapter of the text use real data to build key skills needed for biology, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills. Each Scientific Skills Exercise is also available as an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· NEW! QR codes and URLs at the end of every chapter give students quick access to Vocabulary Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests on their smartphones, tablets, and computers.

· Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions at the end of each chapter ask students to apply their understanding of the chapter content to explain an intriguing photograph.

· Throughout each chapter, students are encouraged to interact with the content as they read by answering NEW! Visual Skills Questions (including drawing questions), Concept Check Questions, Make Connections Questions, Figure Legend Questions, Interpret the Data Questions, and What If? Questions.

· End-of-chapter Summary of Key Concepts Questions reinforce the main ideas of the chapter, while Test Your Understanding Questions prepare students for the kinds of questions they will see on exams and encourage higher-level thinking. The Test Your Understanding Questions are organized into three levels based on Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis, and Synthesis/Evaluation. Question types include Visual Skills: Draw It; Scientific Inquiry; Evolution Connection; Write About a Theme (Organization, Information, Energy and Matter, or Interactions); and Synthesize Your Knowledge.





This package includes MasteringBiology, an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to personalize learning and improve results. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts.



In MasteringBiology:

· NEW! Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules in the Instructor Resources section help instructors efficiently make use of the available teaching tools for the toughest topics. Before-class assignments, in-class activities, and after-class assignments are provided for ease of use. Instructors can incorporate active learning into their course with the suggested activity ideas and clicker questions or Learning Catalytics questions.

· NEW! Figure Walkthroughs guide students through key figures with narrated explanations, figure markups, and embedded self-assessment questions that reinforce important points. The Figure Walkthroughs are also assignable in MasteringBiology, with more challenging, higher Bloom’s level questions.

· NEW! Get Ready for This Chapter mini-quizzes provide a quick check of students’ knowledge of basic information needed to learn the new content, with feedback to bolster their preparation. These questions are available as MasteringBiology assignments and as self-study quizzes in the Study Area.

· The eText includes powerful interactive and customization functions, such as instructor and student note-taking, highlighting, bookmarking, search, and links to glossary terms.

· Dynamic Study Modules provide students with multiple sets of questions with extensive feedback so that they can test, learn, and retest until they achieve mastery of the textbook material.

· Optional Adaptive Follow-up Assignments are based on each student’s performance on the original MasteringBiology assignment and provide additional coaching and practice as needed.

· Learning Catalytics™ allows students to use their smartphones, tablets, or laptops to respond to questions in class.

· Hundreds of self-paced MasteringBiology tutorials provide individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. For example:

o NEW! Visualizing Figures have companion activities assignable in MasteringBiology that give students more practice interpreting information presented visually in diagrams and models.

o NEW! Problem-Solving Exercises challenge students to apply scientific skills and interpret data in the context of solving a real-world problem. These are available in the book and as MasteringBiology assignments.

o Scientific Skills Exercises, based on the exercises in each chapter of the textbook, are available as assignable activities in MasteringBiology.

o Interpret the Data Questions ask students to analyze quantitative information presented in a graph or table.

o Solve It Tutorials engage students in a multi-step investigation of a “mystery” or open question in which they must analyze real data.

o NEW! HHMI Short Films are documentary-quality movies from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute with explorations from the discovery of the double helix to evolution and include assignable questions.

o Video Field Trips allow students to study ecology on virtual field trips.

o BioFlix® Tutorials use movie-quality 3D animations and coaching exercises to help students master tough topics outside of class.

o Make Connections Tutorials ask students to relate figures from two different chapters to make connections between topics covered in different parts of the course.

o BLAST Data Analysis Tutorials teach students how to work with real data from the BLAST database.

o Experimental Inquiry Tutorials allow students to replicate a classic biology experiment and learn the conceptual aspects of experimental design. Students can critically evaluate the experiment and make decisions about how to set up, interpret, assess, and evaluate other experiments.

o Interpreting Data Tutorials provide students with coaching on how to read and interpret data and graphs.

o Data Analysis Tutorials connect students with real data from online databases and guide them in analyzing and interpreting data in a controlled environment.

· Misconception Questions address common student misconceptions related to each chapter’s content, providing feedback to students to help them correct their understanding. The instructor can see which common misconceptions are proving most challenging for the class as a whole.

· Video Tutor Sessions walk students through tough topics with clearly explained visuals and demonstrations.

· In addition, Reading Quiz Questions and over 3,000 Test Bank Questions are available for assignments.

· Every assignment is automatically graded and entered into a gradebook. Instructors can check the gradebook to see what topics students are struggling with and then address those topics in class.




Carefully developed art and animations help visual learners

· NEW! Visualizing Figures are designed to improve student’ ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· NEW! Visual Skills Questions give students practice interpreting information presented visually in diagrams and models. Visual Skills: Draw It Questions ask students to put pencil to paper and draw a structure or process, deepening their understanding of the topic.

· Eleven Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships. NEW! Make Connections Figures include Figure 37.10, “Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains,” and Figure 56.29, “Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization.” Make Connections Figure 18.27 on breast cancer has been expanded to illustrate the role of cell signaling in one type of breast cancer and its treatment.

· BioFlix® 3D Animations help students visualize biology with movie-quality animations that can be presented in class, reviewed by students on their own in the Study Area or eText, and assigned in MasteringBiology. BioFlix Tutorials use the animations as a jumping-off point for MasteringBiology coaching exercises on tough topics.

· In the text, selected figures are rendered in a 3D style to help students visualize biological structures.

· By integrating text, art, and photos, Exploring Figures help students access information efficiently.

· Guided Tour Figures use descriptions in blue type to walk students through complex figures like an instructor would, pointing out key structures, functions, and steps of processes.

· Summary Diagrams help students visually recall what they learned in the chapter.

· Because text and illustrations are equally important for learning biology, the page layouts are carefully designed to place figures together with their discussions in the text.

· PowerPoint® slides are painstakingly developed for optimum presentation in lecture halls, with enlarged editable labels. Complex figures are broken down into parts for step-by-step presentation.



Many Tutorials and Activities in MasteringBiology integrate art from the text, providing a unified learning experience.

New to this Edition
About the book



Content Updates: Carefully selected content updates throughout the text reflect rapidly evolving research in the fields of:

· Genomics

· Gene editing technology (CRISPR)

· Microbiomes

· Impacts of climate change across the biological hierarchy

· Significant revisions have been made to Unit 8, The Ecology of Life, including a deeper integration of evolutionary principles.

Skill Development and Practice: The 11th Edition engages students by challenging them to apply their knowledge and skills to a variety of hands-on activities and exercises in the text and online.

· Problem-Solving Exercises guide students in applying scientific skills and interpreting real data in the context of solving a real-world problem. A version of each Problem-Solving Exercise can also be assigned in MasteringBiology™.

· Visualizing Figures and Visual Skills Questions are designed to improve students’ ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

Make Connections: The 11th Edition helps students make connections visually across biology topics.

· Make Connections Figures include Figure 37.10, “Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains,” and Figure 56.29, “Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization.” Make Connections Figure 18.27 on breast cancer has been expanded to illustrate the role of cell signaling in one type of breast cancer and its treatment.



Active Learning and Assessment: Biology: A Global Approach, Eleventh Edition, Global Edition, provides students with multiple opportunities to deepen their understanding of biology:



In the text:

· Problem-Solving Exercises using real data guide students in applying scientific skills and interpreting real data in the context of solving a real-world problem. A version of each Problem-Solving Exercise can also be assigned in MasteringBiology.

· Visualizing Figures and Visual Skills Questions are designed to improve students’ ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.

· QR codes and URLs at the end of every chapter give students quick access to Vocabulary Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests on their smartphones, tablets, and computers.



This package includes MasteringBiology, an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to personalize learning and improve results. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts.



In MasteringBiology:

· Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules in the Instructor Resources section help instructors efficiently make use of the available teaching tools for the toughest topics. Before-class assignments, in-class activities, and after-class assignments are provided for ease of use. Instructors can incorporate active learning into their course with the suggested activity ideas and clicker questions or Learning Catalytics questions.

· Figure Walkthroughs guide students through key figures with narrated explanations, figure markups, and embedded self-assessment questions that reinforce important points. The Figure Walkthroughs are also assignable in MasteringBiology, with more challenging, higher Bloom’s level questions.

· Get Ready for This Chapter mini-quizzes provide a quick check of students’ knowledge of basic information needed to learn the new content, with feedback to bolster their preparation. These questions are available as MasteringBiology assignments and as self-study quizzes in the eText and Study Area.

· The eText includes powerful interactive and customization functions, such as instructor and student note-taking, highlighting, bookmarking, search, and links to glossary terms.

· Hundreds of self-paced MasteringBiology tutorials provide individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. For example:

Visualizing Figures have companion activities assignable in MasteringBiology that give students more practice interpreting information presented visually in diagrams and models.
Problem-Solving Exercises challenge students to apply scientific skills and interpret data in the context of solving a real-world problem. These are available in the book and as MasteringBiology assignments.
HHMI Short Films are documentary-quality movies from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute with explorations from the discovery of the double helix to evolution and include assignable questions.


Carefully developed art and animations help visual learners

Visualizing Figures are designed to improve student’ ability to interpret and create visual representations of processes and structures in biology. These skills are an essential foundation for understanding diagrams and models that students will encounter in higher-level courses and the scientific literature. For more practice, each Visualizing Figure is accompanied by an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.
Visual Skills Questions give students practice interpreting information presented visually in diagrams and models. Visual Skills: Draw It Questions ask students to put pencil to paper and draw a structure or process, deepening their understanding of the topic.
Make Connections Figures include Figure 37.10, “Mutualism Across Kingdoms and Domains,” and Figure 56.29, “Climate Change Has Effects at All Levels of Biological Organization.” Make Connections Figure 18.27 on breast cancer has been expanded to illustrate the role of cell signaling in one type of breast cancer and its treatment.
Table of Contents
1 Biology and Its Themes

Inquiring About Life

Concept 1.1 The study of life reveals unifying themes

Concept 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life

Concept 1.3 In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypotheses

Concept 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints



Unit 1 THE ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN BIOLOGY



2 Atoms and Molecules

A Chemical Connection to Biology

Concept 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds

Concept 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms

Concept 2.3 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms

Concept 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds



3 The Chemistry of Water

The Molecule That Supports All of Life

Concept 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding

Concept 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life

Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms



4 Carbon: The Basis of Molecular Diversity

Carbon: The Backbone of Life

Concept 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds

Concept 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms

Concept 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function



5 Biological Macromolecules and Lipids

The Molecules of Life

Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers

Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material

Concept 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules

Concept 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions

Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information

Concept 5.6 Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications



6 Energy and Life

The Energy of Life

Concept 6.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics

Concept 6.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously

Concept 6.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions

Concept 6.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers

Concept 6.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism



Unit 2 Cell biology



7 Cell Structure and Function

The Fundamental Units of Life

Concept 7.1 Biologists use microscopes and biochemistry to study cells

Concept 7.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions Concept 7.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes

Concept 7.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions

Concept 7.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another

Concept 7.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell

Concept 7.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities

Concept 7.8 A cell is greater than the sum of its parts



8 Cell Membranes

Life at the Edge

Concept 8.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins

Concept 8.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability

Concept 8.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment

Concept 8.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients

Concept 8.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis



9 Cellular Signaling

Cellular Messaging

Concept 9.1 External signals are converted to responses within the cell

Concept 9.2 Reception: A signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape

Concept 9.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell

Concept 9.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities

Concept 9.5 Apoptosis integrates multiple cell-signaling pathways



10 Cell Respiration

Life Is Work

Concept 10.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

Concept 10.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate

Concept 10.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules

Concept 10.4 During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis

Concept 10.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen

Concept 10.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways



11 Photosynthetic Processes

The Process That Feeds the Biosphere

Concept 11.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food

Concept 11.2 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH

Concept 11.3 The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar

Concept 11.4 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates

Concept 11.5 Life depends on photosynthesis



12 Mitosis

The Key Roles of Cell Division

Concept 12.1 Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

Concept 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle

Concept 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system



Unit 3 THE GENETIC BASIS OF LIFE





13 Sexual Life Cycles and Meiosis

Variations on a Theme

Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes

Concept 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles

Concept 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from

diploid to haploid

Concept 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution



14 Mendelian Genetics

Drawing from the Deck of Genes

Concept 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance

Concept 14.2 Probability laws govern Mendelian inheritance

Concept 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more complex than predicted by simple Mendelian genetics

Concept 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance



15 Linkage and Chromosomes

Locating Genes Along Chromosomes

Concept 15.1 Morgan showed that Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes: scientific inquiry

Concept 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance

Concept 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together because they are located near each other on the same chromosome

Concept 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders

Concept 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to standard Mendelian inheritance



16 Nucleic Acids and Inheritance

Life’s Operating Instructions

Concept 16.1 DNA is the genetic material

Concept 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair

Concept 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule packed together with proteins



17 Expression of Genes

The Flow of Genetic Information

Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation

Concept 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA: a closer look

Concept 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription

Concept 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide: a closer look

Concept 17.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can affect protein structure and function



18 Control of Gene Expression

Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder

Concept 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription

Concept 18.2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at many stages

Concept 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in controlling gene expression

Concept 18.4 A program of differential gene expression leads to the different cell types in a multicellular organism

Concept 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control



19 DNA Technology

The DNA Toolbox

Concept 19.1 DNA sequencing and DNA cloning are valuable tools for genetic engineering and biological inquiry

Concept 19.2 Biologists use DNA technology to study gene expression and function

Concept 19.3 Cloned organisms and stem cells are useful for basic research and other applications

Concept 19.4 The practical applications of DNA-based biotechnology affect our lives in many ways



20 The Evolution of Genomes

Reading the Leaves from the Tree of Life

Concept 20.1 The Human Genome Project fostered development of faster, less expensive sequencing techniques

Concept 20.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions

Concept 20.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes, and gene density

Concept 20.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have a lot of noncoding DNA and many multigene families

Concept 20.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of DNA contribute to genome evolution

Concept 20.6 Comparing genome sequences provides clues to evolution and development







Unit 4 Evolution



21 How Evolution Works

Endless Forms Most Beautiful

Concept 21.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species

Concept 21.2 Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life

Concept 21.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence



22 Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Investigating the Tree of Life

Concept 22.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationships

Concept 22.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular data

Concept 22.3 Shared characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees

Concept 22.4 An organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome

Concept 22.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary time

Concept 22.6 Our understanding of the tree of life continues to change based on new data



23 Microevolution

The Smallest Unit of Evolution

Concept 23.1 Genetic variation makes evolution possible

Concept 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving

Concept 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population

Concept 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution



24 Species and Speciation

That “Mystery of Mysteries”

Concept 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation

Concept 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation

Concept 24.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation

Concept 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes



25 Macroevolution

A Surprise in the Desert

Concept 25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible

Concept 25.2 The fossil record documents the history of life

Concept 25.3 Key events in life’s history include the origins of unicellular and

multicellular organisms and the colonization of land

Concept 25.4 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect differences in speciation and extinction rates

Concept 25.5 Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes

Concept 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented



Unit 5 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE



26 Introduction to Viruses

A Borrowed Life

Concept 26.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

Concept 26.2 Viruses replicate only in host cells

Concept 26.3 Viruses and prions are formidable pathogens in animals and plants



27 Prokaryotes

Masters of Adaptation

Concept 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success

Concept 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes

Concept 27.3 Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes

Concept 27.4 Prokaryotes have radiated into a diverse set of lineages

Concept 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere

Concept 27.6 Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful impacts on humans



28 The Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotes

Living Small

Concept 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled organisms

Concept 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella

Concept 28.3 SAR is a highly diverse group of protists defined by DNA similarities

Concept 28.4 Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of plants

Concept 28.5 Unikonts include protists that are closely related to fungi and animals

Concept 28.6 Protists play key roles in ecological communities



29 Nonvascular and Seedless Vascular Plants

The Greening of Earth

Concept 29.1 Plants evolved from green algae

Concept 29.2 Mosses and other nonvascular plants have life cycles dominated by gametophytes

Concept 29.3 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants to grow tall



30 Seed Plants

Transforming the World

Concept 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land

Concept 30.2 Gymnosperms bear “naked” seeds, typically on cones

Concept 30.3 The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits

Concept 30.4 Human welfare depends on seed plants



31 Introduction to Fungi

Hidden Networks

Concept 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption

Concept 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles

Concept 31.3 The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist

Concept 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages

Concept 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare



32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity

A Kingdom of Consumers

Concept 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers

Concept 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a billion years

Concept 32.3 Animals can be characterized by “body plans”

Concept 32.4 Views of animal phylogeny continue to be shaped by new molecular and morphological data



33 Invertebrates

A Dragon Without a Backbone

Concept 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack tissues

Concept 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of eumetazoans

Concept 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by molecular data, have the widest range of animal body forms

Concept 33.4 Ecdysozoans are the most species-rich animal group

Concept 33.5 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes



34 Vertebrates

Half a Billion Years of Backbones

Concept 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Concept 34.2 Vertebrates are chordates that have a backbone

Concept 34.3 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws

Concept 34.4 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs

Concept 34.5 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg

Concept 34.6 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk

Concept 34.7 Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion



Unit 6 PLANTS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION



35 Plant Structure and Growth

Are Plants Computers?

Concept 35.1 Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs, tissues, and cells

Concept 35.2 Different meristems generate new cells for primary and secondary growth

Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots

Concept 35.4 Secondary growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants

Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation produce the plant body



36 Transport in Vascular Plants

A Whole Lot of Shaking Going On

Concept 36.1 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants

Concept 36.2 Different mechanisms transport substances over short or long distances

Concept 36.3 Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem

Concept 36.4 The rate of transpiration is regulated by stomata

Concept 36.5 Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the phloem

Concept 36.6 The symplast is highly dynamic



37 Plant Nutrition

The Corkscrew Carnivore

Concept 37.1 Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem

Concept 37.2 Plant roots absorb essential elements from the soil

Concept 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms



38 Reproduction of Flowering Plants

Flowers of Deceit

Concept 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are key features of the angiosperm life cycle

Concept 38.2 Flowering plants reproduce sexually, asexually, or both

Concept 38.3 People modify crops by breeding and genetic engineering



39 Plant Signals and Behavior

Stimuli and a Stationary Life

Concept 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response

Concept 39.2 Plant hormones help coordinate growth, development, and responses to stimuli

Concept 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant success

Concept 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli other than light

Concept 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by pathogens and herbivores



Unit 7 ANIMALS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION



40 The Animal Body

Diverse Forms, Common Challenges

Concept 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization

Concept 40.2 Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals

Concept 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior

Concept 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment



41 Chemical Signals in Animals

The Body’s Long-Distance Regulators

Concept 41.1 Hormones and other signaling molecules bind to target receptors, triggering specific response pathways

Concept 41.2 Feedback regulation and coordination with the nervous system are common in hormone pathways

Concept 41.3 Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating homeostasis, development, and behavior



42 Animal Digestive Systems

The Need to Feed

Concept 42.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients

Concept 42.2 Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

Concept 42.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Concept 42.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet

Concept 42.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy storage, and appetite



43 Animal Transport Systems

Trading Places

Concept 43.1 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body

Concept 43.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals Concept 43.3 Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels

Concept 43.4 Blood components function in exchange, transport, and defense

Concept 43.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces

Concept 43.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs

Concept 43.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases



44 Animal Excretory Systems

A Balancing Act

Concept 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes

Concept 44.2 An animal’s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat

Concept 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme

Concept 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise processing of blood filtrate

Concept 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water balance, and blood pressure



45 Animal Reproductive Systems

Let Me Count the Ways

Concept 45.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom

Concept 45.2 Fertilization depends on mechanisms that bring together sperm and eggs of the same species

Concept 45.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport gametes

Concept 45.4 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates reproduction in mammals

Concept 45.5 In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mother’s uterus



46 Development in Animals

A Body-Building Plan

Concept 46.1 Fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic development

Concept 46.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and survival

Concept 46.3 Cytoplasmic determinants and inductive signals regulate cell fate



47 Animal Defenses Against Infection

Recognition and Response

Concept 47.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens

Concept 47.2 In adaptive immunity, receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition

Concept 47.3 Adaptive immunity defends against infection of body fluids and body cells

Concept 47.4 Disruptions in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate disease



48 Electrical Signals in Animals

Lines of Communication

Concept 48.1 Neuron structure and organization reflect function in information transfer

Concept 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron

Concept 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons

Concept 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses



49 Neural Regulation in Animals

Command and Control Center

Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells

Concept 49.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally specialized

Concept 49.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions

Concept 49.4 Changes in synaptic connections underlie memory and learning

Concept 49.5 Many nervous system disorders can now be explained in molecular terms



50 Sensation and Movement in Animals

Sense and Sensibility

Concept 50.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus energy and transmit signals to the central nervous system

Concept 50.2 In hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors detect moving fluid or settling

particles

Concept 50.3 The diverse visual receptors of animals depend on light-absorbing pigments

Concept 50.4 The senses of taste and smell rely on similar sets of sensory receptors

Concept 50.5 The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function

Concept 50.6 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion



Unit 8 THE ECOLOGY OF LIFE



51 An Overview of Ecology

Discovering Ecology

Concept 51.1 Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly

Concept 51.2 The distribution of terrestrial biomes is controlled by climate and disturbance

Concept 51.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth

Concept 51.4 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species

Concept 51.5 Ecological change and evolution affect one another over long and short periods of time



52 Behavioral Ecology

The How and Why of Animal Activity

Concept 52.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors

Concept 52.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior

Concept 52.3 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain diverse behaviors

Concept 52.4 Genetic analyses and the concept of inclusive fitness provide a basis for studying the evolution of behavior



53 Populations and Life History Traits

Turtle Tracks

Concept 53.1 Biotic and abiotic factors affect population density, dispersion, and demographics

Concept 53.2 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment

Concept 53.3 The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity

Concept 53.4 Life history traits are products of natural selection

Concept 53.5 Density-dependent factors regulate population growth

Concept 53.6 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly



54 Biodiversity and Communities

Communities in Motion

Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved

Concept 54.2 Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities

Concept 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition

Concept 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community diversity

Concept 54.5 Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally



55 Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling in Ecosystems

Transformed to Tundra

Concept 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems

Concept 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems

Concept 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient

Concept 55.4 Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems

Concept 55.5 Restoration ecologists return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state



56 Conservation and Global Ecology

Psychedelic Treasure

Concept 56.1 Human activities threaten Earth’s biodiversity

Concept 56.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical habitat

Concept 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation help sustain biodiversity

Concept 56.4 Earth is changing rapidly as a result of human actions

Concept 56.5 Sustainable development can improve human lives while conserving biodiversity

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